The gender and race composition of median household income and male/female, white/black pay gap. Wyoming, USA


Gender wage differentials seem to be a constant in modern world. There has been continued progress in gender equality in paid employment in over past 3 decades, due largely to women’s progress in education and workforce participation, but still it we are unable to come up with equal wages without being gender biased. Gender pay gap has lifelong financial effects. For one, it contributes directly to women’s poverty.

In the traditional economic theory such as monopsony theory (Jaon Robinson), this differential is the result of women’s lower measured and unmeasured labor skills and or a result of labor market discrimination (New joint Negotiating Committee of Higher Education Staff). Although women are now working in more fields than ever, they are still more likely to work in lower-paying jobs than men are, and they remain under-represented in many occupations.

This paper try to investigate whether the gap still exists between men and women. Hence the research question is: Is there and disparities by gender and race in the wages of full time worker?

For my research, I have taken Wyoming as my case example. The reason to select Wyoming as a case is; asper AAUW 2015 Spring report Wyoming is the city with largest wage gap difference between men and women.  In this paper, I will employ 2015American Fact Finder ACS data to investigate the wage difference between the gender.

The paper is organized as follows: In first section I present different theories related to my research and hypothesis for testing my research question. In second part I talk about the data and methodology for testing my hypothesis. Third section will present the results and findings and the last section will give some concluding remarks.

II.                Theory and Hypothesis

Sex and racial segregation at work are intimately liked to sex and racial inequalities in the labor force. Sex and racial segregation are profoundly liked to the quality of jobs. This is because the best jobs in most workplaces are systematically reserved for white males. In addition, as a job comes to be thought of as “women’s work” or a “minority position”, it tends to be downgraded in prestige in an organization. (Tomaskovic-Devey, Gender & Racial Inequality at Work: The Sources and Consequences of Job segregation, 1993)

Human Capital Model by Mincer and Polachek (1974) explains gender pay difference in earning by difference in productivity. As per this theory women except shorter and more volatile work lives than man, and this implies less incentives to pursue strong human capital investments, which causes lower economic outcomes. But this theory is argued on many aspects, mainly because of its emphasis on labor-supply-side considerations.

Bergmann (1974) develops another theory which argues the discriminatory exclusion of women from male jobs results in an excess supply of labor in ‘female’ occupations, depressing wages for otherwise equally skilled and productive workers. Aigner and Cain (1977) and Lundberg and Startz(1983) developed a theory based on labor –demand-side considerations. This theory emphasizes the role of imperfect labor markets, where the problem of symmetric information causes a drop in the mean wages of women, given that employers do not know if they are hiring a low productivity or a high productivity female worker. In this model, firms can more easily predict the performance of whites or men than of minorities or woman. In such a world, firms offer different wages schedules to, say, white and blacks.

Clau and Kahn(1995) as men and women tend to have different levels of labor markets skills and to work in different sectors, there is a potential important role for wages structure in determining the gender pay gap.

There is less known about race segregation, but research has found that as the percent minority in an occupation rise, earnings tend to decline for minorities and majorities alike. The status composition is that jobs that are dis proportionately female or black become stereotyped, and the work process itself begins to reflect the devalued master status of typical incumbents (Acker & Van Houten 1974; Bielby & Baron 1985, Caplow 1954, Treiman & Hartmann 1982). According to this argument, jobs and organizational structure may be fundamentally determined by race and gender.

All these theories, however share feature that gender specific factors are considered the main source of the gender wage differential.


We will assume following hypothesis to test the research questions

Null Hypothesis: There is no difference between the median household income of male and median household income of female of all the racial groups.

H0: µwhite/m/in = µwhite/f/in = µblack/m/in = µblack/f/in = µWhitenonHispanic/m/in = µWhitenonHispanic/f/in = µ other/m/in = µother/f/in  

Alternative Hypothesis: There is a significant difference between the median household income of male and median household income of female of at least one racial group.

H1: µwhite/m/in ≠ µwhite/f/in µblack/m/in ≠ µblack/f/in ≠ µWhitenonHispanic/m/in ≠ µWhitenonHispanic/f/in µ other/m/in ≠  µother/f/in 

III.             Method and Data


In the process of examining the relationship between variables, researchers can use Two way ANOVA to compare the means of two or more groups.

Data Set

The result in this article is based in census tract data of Wyoming collected by American Fact Finder ACS data of 2015. The data contain demographic characteristics, median earning of full time year-round workers and ethnic origin of all the census tract in Wyoming. I used 3 ethnic group, White, Black, White, and others for my study.

Research can examine the relationships between two variables by comparing the mean of the dependent variable between two or more groups within independent variables. The sample is divided into two groups based gender and ethnicity on independent variable. Then compared the means of the median income of full time on the dependent variables.

Table 1: Description of Variables

Variables Definition Level of Measurement Source
Independent Variable Gender Gender is a social construction whereby a society or culture assigns certain tendencies or behaviors the labels of masculine or feminine.

It can be divided in two categories, Male or Female

Racial Groups include race and national origin or sociocultural groups.

White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander. Some Other Race. Respondents may report more than one race.

Dependent Variable Median House hold Income the median household income is based on the distribution of the total number of households and families including those with no income. The median household income for individuals is based on individuals 15 years old and over with income. Median income for households, families, and individuals is computed based on a standard distribution. Interval-Ration

For racial groups, I have 4 categories,

  1. White: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as “White” or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or Caucasian.
  2. Black/African American: A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as “Black, African Am., or Negro”; or report entries such as African American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian.
  3. White Non- Hispanic: whitesnot of Hispanic or Latino origin or “Anglo,” are people in the United States who, as defined by the Census Bureau, are considered racially white and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity.
  4. Others: The remaining categories in race are combined and consolidated in this category.

Descriptive statistics was conducted to observe the distribution of the data. Table 2 presents a summary of the entire sample aged above 15. These data are used throughout the paper.



Table 2: Descriptive Statistics of census tract, Wyoming

Male Median Household Income
  Minimum Maximum Mean Median Mode Standard Deviation Range Count
White Worker 25875 82260 52515.92 52154 50147 10361.43 56385 100
White non-Hispanic workers 27791 82500 54124.1 53164 62119 10997.9 54709 101
Black Workers 32675 35903 34289 34289 n/a 2282.54 2
Other Race Workers 0 250000 48081.5 34108 n/a 59452.77 250000 14
Female Median Income
White Worker 13519 51532 35263.60 33570 32500 6446.31 38013 100
White non-Hispanic workers 13519 53889 35665 34011 33654 6600.38 40370 101
Black Workers 26000 31750 28548.33 27895 n/a 2930.14 5750 3
Other Race Workers 0 60417 25689.77 30000 n/a 17232.27 60417 13

(American Fact Finder ACS 2015 data, 2015)

There is a difference in mean of white male and black male wages as well as the mean on all the groups in female and male have large differences.

IV.             Results and Findings

The two-way ANOVA was conducted to evaluate the relationship between male and female wage structure within different ethnic groups.  Thought the AAUW report of 2017 state that there is 64% (AAUW, 2017) of gender pay difference between male and female wages, but there is no substantial difference between the wages of racial groups. Table 3 displays the summary for ANOVA.

Table 3: ANOVA test

SUMMARY Count Sum Average Variance    
White Worker 2 87779.52






White non-Hispanic workers 2 89789.05






Black Workers 2 64778






Other Race Workers 2 64108






  Male 4 176651 44162.80 112775130.3
  Female 4 129804 32450.90 12345124.5
Source of Variation SS df MS                F P-value F critical
Rows 297370848.9 3 99123616.3 3.812 0.15 9.276
Columns 274335663.28 1 274335663.28 10.552 0.047 10.128
Error 77989915.35 3 25996638.45
Total 649696427.54 7


The ANOVA was insignificant for male and female wage difference as Fobtained < Fcritical, and P-value > α-value. The result of ANOVA allowed to fail to reject the null hypothesis and supporting the conclusion that there is no statistical disparity between the wages of male and female between different racial groups.

As the study state that we have substantially overcome the wage difference from last century.

V.                Summary and Conclusion

The purpose of this study was to examine the disparity between the media wages of male and female full time workers within different ethnic groups. Descriptive statistics allowed to determining the mean of the independent variable and dependent variable. The gender pay gap may decreased in last 2 decades and the study shows there no significant difference in wages of male and female within racial settings.





AAUW. (2017). The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap.

American Fact Finder ACS 2015 data. (2015).

New joint Negotiating Committee of Higher Education Staff. (n.d.). The Gender Pay gap-Literature Review.

Sow, M. T. (2014). Using ANOVA to Examine the Relationship between Safety and Security And Human Development. Journal of International Business and Economics, 101-106.

Tomaskovic-Devey, D. (1993). Gender & Racial Inequality at Work: The Sources and Consequences of Job segregation. Ithaca, New York: ILR Press.

Tomaskovic-Devey, D. (1993). The Gender and Race Composition of Jobs and the Male/Female, White/Black Pay Gaps. Social Forces, 45-76.

AAUW. (2017). The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap.

American Fact Finder ACS 2015 data. (2015).

New joint Negotiating Committee of Higher Education Staff. (n.d.). The Gender Pay gap-Literature Review


List of Tables

Table 1: Variables. 4

Table 2: Descriptive Statistics of census tract, Wyoming. 6

Table 3: ANOVA test 7




ABSTRACT:This paper represent the introductory study of gated enclaves in Bhopal. Bhopal initially developed as a gated city but lately developed as an integrated city. Until recently in 2000, the political developments and urbanization started to formalize the fabric of the city. Transport infrastructure developed and transformations in existing urban environment followed new formations in vacant land at the sub-urban boundaries of the city. The real estate market and developers initiated gated development and since then these are the trend of urban development of Bhopal. The development patterns of gated communities in many countries show that developers recognize the opportunity to sell safety and security to a niche market. But the objectives in Indian scenario changes due to ethnic groups, social status and urban governance. Against this background this paper will investigate the pattern of gated communities in western contest and what are the typologies of these communities, will also study similar aspect in Bhopal as a case example, and conclude the paper whether the communities present in Indian scenario are same as western patterns or else they form the different typology.


Urbanization leads to optimistic dynamism for transformation and the cities are guided predominantly to urban era. Cities craft economy, create opportunities for education and employment and a richer social and cultural life(Ravindra, 2012). It is also true that various forms of exclusion continue to marginalize large number of residents, depriving them access to many of the opportunities cities offer, in other words, the right to enjoy the ‘urban advantage.’ Urban growth has also come to be identified with poverty and slums(Jill Grant, Lindsey Mittelsteadt, 2004). Cities are dynamic in nature and have multiple layers added to it which makes it vulnerable for the individual. This vulnerability leads to the formation of community having similar characteristics.

In the late 20th century, an ancient urban form began to reappear in modern settlements (Judd, 1995; Morris, 1994).Gated communities are an important are the Common Interest Developments (CID), in these kind the concept of defensible space in the prime objective.Gates and barriers indicate the depth of security concerns contemporary cities must address crime, traffic, loss of sense of community and fear of mixing. They are planned and marked as spatially segregated environment. The communities have the resident’s ownership and control common areas or shared amenities.

The gated communities are defined by many experts differently;a gated community is a housing development on private roads closed to general traffic by a gate across the primary access. The developments may be surrounded by fences, walls, or other natural barriers.(Jill Grant, Lindsey Mittelsteadt, 2004)

….residential areas with restricted access in which normally public spaces are privatized. They are security developments with designated perimeters, usually walls or fences, and controlled entrances that are intended to prevent penetration by nonresidents. They include new developments and older areas retrofitted with gates and fences, and they are found from the inner cities to the exurbs and from the richest neighborhoods to the poorest. (Blakely, E.J., M.G. Snyder, 1998). Hence we can define it as anexclusive community with the shared amenities and facilities, fortified all around and have restricted entrance.


The gated communities are not the new phenomenon, historically the gated enclaves are built but the objectives were different. The gated developments of those eras were built for the security as a prime objective and then the social segregation. The fear from invaders or the natural calamity fear forces them to build the wall around the city. Similar is the case with Indian cities, they built gates around the settlement to protect themselves. In Indian context the racial and social discrimination is the prime demarcation and the reason for the gates. The forts and noble settlements are the kind of gated communities in India. Thus the system of walls and class division was deeply engaged in India. The heritage of this system can still be seen on the Indian landscape in the walled forts and mansions.


In 1800 the gated communities were initially built up in America. They were built to insulate themselves from the troublesome aspects of rapidly industrializing cities.Primarily they were integrated with larger civic space. But the gated development privatized these civic spaces for the communities residing. Later in 19th century more gated compounds were developed by members of East Coast and Hollywood for privacy, protection and prestige.

Till 1960-70 the only typologies of such developments were retired enclaves. Later in the 20th century fenced compound were built for privacy, protection and prestige. They were termed as uncommon places for uncommon man (Blakely, E.J., M.G. Snyder, 1998). The leisure was the first development for the urban middle class, and soon these typologies spread throughout the sub-urban development of many western cities. In developing countries cities are divided between wealthy and poor, gated communities provide another layer of comfort for city’s wealthy people. Nowadays the communities are not restricted to wealthy people, now every social class can access such kind of development with different degree of facilities provided.


The main features of these developments are:

  • These developments are separated by surrounding development by a barrier to human movement, usually in the form of wall or fences and entry or exit are under surveillance.
  • Privatized community space. All the public areas have been privatized and only the community resident can access such places and other are not allowed accessing the area.
  • Privatized civic responsibilities; police, communal services such as street maintenance, recreation and entertainment.
  • They are run by self-governing home owners associations or else developer itself.
  • Amenities available in a gated community depend on a number of factors including geographical location, demographic composition, community structure, and community fees collected.
  • They aim to avoid the spillovers of urban residential and industrial developments such as:

crime, increasing  through traffic, free-riding of the amenities, urban decay.

Blakely and Snyder in their book Fortress America describes 3 kind of gated communities





Prestige community

It is basically wealth and status oriented development andgates prevent the wealth from outside world.They don’t include common facilities and amenities. These are the fastest growing development form in western cities as the status symbol. Services such as gate guards add to the sense of exclusivity, these werefound more among the rising upper-middle class in developing world. Walls and gates are erected to determine crime, limit traffic or maintain property values. The gates are just to seclude them from the world and mark them as exclusive; the security is not a prime objective.
Gates are the main characteristics and this is the need of the community. Fear of crime and outsiders is the main objective of such development and that is the reason why they put up the gates. These may or may not be a planned development and later if resident felt the need for security the put up the gates all around. These enclaves strengthen the feeling and function of community.Most common in coastal secondary- home developments with mixed incomes and part and full time residents.Security Zone Community

Life style community

The development focuses on leisure activities with recreational facilities, common amenities and shared service core. These developments can follow certain theme for the development. The main features of these developments are country club, golf course, private beach or lake which gives them the sense of lifestyle. These are the development in sub-urban new townships to attract the residents living in cluttered cities. It may contain several thousand housing units incorporating residential, commercial, and retail activities within or nearby. The security measures here are concentrated to control issues rather than crime.


About the city

Bhopal is developed in 11th century and later redeveloped in 18th century by the Mughals. The city declared as a capital city 1956 and also a new industrial town BHEL was established in the north east. Due to this the employment option increases and the people start migrating to the city to grab the opportunity; this in return increases the housing demand in the city. Bhopal is the conglomeration of four different cities and not termed city as a whole but the people discriminate them from the area they are residing. It is also the form of gated development but the gates and walls are not tangible. 


The city of Bhopal in 18th century was re-established by Dost Mohambed Khan,  this is a typical historical Mughal development, with Fathegarh as a fort for the ruler and Sher-E-Khas as a city for nobles. The have a large civic space to gather there for public affairs, called as Iqbal Maidan. But as the city grew the walls were demolished in after the formation of capital in 1956. At that time the housing need increases due to the job opportunity, and hence government developed many colonies to reside his employee and so they developed colonies for private employees, but these communities were not gated but have virtual segregation of class as they form different quarters for different class officers. Figure 4: gated development in history, representing for for the ruler and walled city for nobles

They established LIG, MIG and HIG quarters for the bank officers and A to I type for government employees of different class. The Char Imli and Shivaji Nagar were the two major government resident development in new city, also they sale the plots to private owners and developed arera colony, which is the posh area of the city.
As the urbanization grew the city limit extend and the infrastructure developments give the developers an opportunity to develop the housing outside the city limits as the land prices are low and the municipal bye-laws are minimal outside the city limits. The infrastructure is low and the surroundings are barren and this is the initial reason for putting up gates around these developments, later is became the trend an d now every development has the walls and gates all around.GATED DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY

 The prime reason for the success of these communities is that they are providing all the facilities which the uran gorvenace failed to provide like, water supplly, sewerage, electricity etc. all these are provided by these developers on private basis and people are ready to expense more to get these facilities as in city they have to suffer for these things because of the poor infrastructure and weak service.

Features of gated communities in Bhopal

  • They have the gate and fences all around.
  • Some communities are for specific as they are for special administrative officials.
  • All the amenities are shared by all the residents.
  • In newer development outside the city limits the leisure and recreation facilities are provided to the residents.
  • The enclaves within the city limits have security as a prime issue and they may or may not have the leisure facilities.
  • They have private associations to sort the daily problems of the society.
  • The newer developments have the mixed ratio of row houses, bungalow typology and apartments, with small commercial space.
  • It appeals to those who cannot rely on public regulations and political processes to protect their homes from unwanted people.


Bhopal have mainly 4 kind of gated pattern in the city, they are characterized by its facilities, size, amenities and the social status they prefer to.

  1. RBI Colony: It is a bank officer colony.
  2. Area Colony: It is the private plotted development.
  3. Maple Tree: It is the private development with apartment typology.
  4. JNNURM Housing: Housing for urban poor.

This is the housing development for the RBI officers and employees. This is within the city limits and has the shared facilities and amenities within the campus. The people belong to same work center and hence have same work background. The security check is must and outsiders are not allowed to access the area without the known person residing in the colony. The gardens are privatized and no outsiders are allowed to play in the garden. Restricted traffic movement and no city traffic can access the colony; there were 3 gates to access the colony.The colony have their own private club and guest house. The urban form merges with the city as all around the government development is their.


Area colony was initially developed as the plotted development without gates. Later due to exclusivity the gates were built, as it is the posh area of the city and many big residences were within the campus. There are different sectors in area colony and all the sectors have common club, but each sector does not have their own club, the green spaces here are not privatized and are accessible for the outsiders too, the security guard are  not at the gates for the check and city traffic can easily move within the campus.


It is the sub urban gated development with all the facilities and amenities provided within the campus and was marketed and the theme based garden; it have security check and wall all around, people are restricted to enter the society and green areas are privatized. The design is planned to enhance the lifestyle. They are the art apartment typology and have shared facilities.


In 2009 the JNNURM proposed the scheme for the housing for urban poor. The demolished the slum and rehabilitate them into the G+3 stories apartment with all the amenities, but there is no facilities and open areas for the people residing there, the boundary wall was put all around to seclude them from the city fabric. The high boundary wall, exclude them from the street and there is no interaction of the settlement with the street. They have common toilets and no other facilities are provided to these developments, streets are narrow and building is high, which forms the sense of enclosure.

To compare the enclaves a matrix in being formulated stating different features of gated development in western context and concluding wether the community is having same pattern or else they form the different typology.

Gates/fences Security guard Location Residents built up gates Parks based on some theme Swimming pool Club house Commercial area Social status Open spaces Remark
Arera colony Y N C Y N N N N H Y High society residences, the gates are just to make it more exclusive
Maple tree Y Y O N Y Y Y Y UM Y is the apartment typology with all integrated facilities
RBI colony Y Y C N N N N N GO Y Administrative officials apartment
JNNURM housing scheme Y N C N N N N N BPL Y Housing for urban poor, with no facilities and main features of gated enclaves.


  • ARERA COLONY – Is a prestige community where status is the prime requirement and security is secondary.
  • MAPLE TREE – Is the lifestyle community where all the facilities and amenities are shared by all.
  • RBI COLONY – Is constituting the new typology of gated community where people share common work zone and hence residing in the community. It is the forced community.
  • JNNURM HOUSING – too constitutes a new typology which is planned for urban poor without any facilities.


  • Greater availability of facilities and amenities with the enclave, reflect the greater social distance between the outside worlds.
  • The sub urban development in Bhopal has no interaction with the outside development whereas the community within the city allows partial connection to the outside society.
  • Class segregation leads to the social discrimination of urban poor.
  • The government failure in providing the public amenities leads to the formation of these enclaves which market there societies by this as a primary means.

  • References

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    Chris E McGoey, C. C. (2001). Gated Communities ACCESS CONTROL ISSUES.

    Jill Grant, Lindsey Mittelsteadt. (2004). Types of gated communities. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design: VOLUME 31, 913-930.

    Ravindra, A. (2012, april 16). Bridging the gap between ghettos and gated communities. deccan herland.

    SCHÖNTEICH, KARINA LANDMAN & MARTIN. (2002). URBAN FORTRESSES: Gated communities as a reaction to crime. AFRICAN SECURITY REVIEW 11(4), 71-85.

    Wu, Fulong. (2005). Rediscovering the ‘Gate’ Under Market Transition:From Work-unit Compounds to Commodity Housing. Housing Studies, 235-254.